NASA
Other Metal Whiskers

Home Basic Info/FAQ Other Metal Whiskers Literature References Whisker Failures Whisker Anecdotes Photo Gallery Video Gallery GSFC Experiments Related Links What's New Contact Us

 
"Other" Metal Whisker References

This section of the www site is a repository for reference information on whiskers that may form on metal finishes OTHER than pure Tin.  Follow the LITERATURE REFERENCES Link for a comprehensive listing of TIN whisker reference materials.

OTHER (i.e., Non-Tin) METAL WHISKERS

Zinc (Zn) Whiskers

Photo Gallery of Zinc Whiskers Found on Raised Floor Structures

  1. J. Brusse, M. Sampson, "Zinc Whiskers:  Hidden Cause of Equipment Failure", IEEE IT Professional Magazine, 2004 Nov/Dec, Vol. 6 No. 6, pp 43-47
  2. H. Reynolds, R. Hilty, "Investigations of Zinc (Zn) Whiskers using FIB Technology", IPC/JEDEC Boston, Dec. 2004
    Technical Presentation:  http://www.tycoelectronics.com/customersupport/rohssupportcenter/pdf/Zn_whisker_IPC_2004_pres.pdf
  3.  "Zinc whiskers found in War Memorial", ComputerWorld-Australia, M. Crawford, Aug. 12, 2004
  4. "Pesky Whiskers Zap PCs in Secretary of State's Office", The Denver Post, A. Svaldi, July 1, 2004, Page C-01
  5. "Zinc whiskers tangle data centre ops", ComputerWorld-Australia, J. Bajkowski, Feb. 12, 2004
  6. "Zinc Whisker Detail", Worldwide Environmental Services, 
  7. "Zinc Whisker Awareness:  Could Zinc Whiskers Be Impacting Your Electronics?", J. Brusse QSS Group at NASA Goddard - Technical Presentation, April 2003
  8. Zinc Whisker Contamination:  A Paper on the Effect and Abatement of Zinc Whiskers in Data Processing Centers, D. Loman (HP Services) 
  9. "Are Zinc Whiskers Growing in Your Computer Room?",  R. Hill (Data Clean Corp.)
  10. "Zinc Whisker Induced Failures in Electronic Systems", ERA Technology, Winter 2003
  11. "Is Your Computer Floor Corrupting Your Data? - You May Be Suffering from Zinc Whiskers", DCA Technologies, Australia
  12. Invisible 'Zinc Whiskers' Cause Troubles in Machine Rooms at Banks, Data Centers, Nikkei Electronics Asia,  Dec. 2002
  13. "Cheese and Whiskers", In-Business South Australia, Dec 2002/Jan 2004, D. Twiss 
  14. "Zinc Whisker Contamination of Electronics", MATCO Associates
  15. "What Nasty Little Things are Lurking Inside Your Data Center?" Unisys World Monthly, Nov. 2002
  16. "Method for sampling and testing data centers for metallic particulates (including zinc whiskers)" HP US Patent Application #20020162405, Nov. 2002
  17. "Zinc Whiskers:  What are they and how do we deal with them?"  Cooper B-Line
  18. "Floating Zinc Whiskers Strike at PC Systems", u-the Inquirer
  19. "Sun Microsystems Best Practices Guide", Sun Microsystems, July 2000
  20. Apnea Monitor Failures:  J. Downs, "The Phenomenon of Zinc Whisker Growth and the Rotary Switch (or, How the Switch Industry Captured the Abominable Snowman)", Metal Finishing, August 1994, pp. 23-25
  21. "Zinc Whiskers Growing on Raised Floor Tiles are Causing Conductive Contamination Failures and Equipment Shutdowns", The Uptime Institute
  22. "Zinc Whiskers on Floor Tiles", Infinite Access Floors
  23. "Are You Having Unexplained Outages? Zinc Whiskers", BACS IT Protection - Australia
  24. "Precautions Against Zinc Whiskers", Compaq
  25. "Zinc Whiskers Overview", Infinite Access Floors-Australia
  26. "Zinc Whiskers (Finishing Dot Com Forum Discussion)", Finishing Dot Com
  27. D. Conwell, "Zinc Whisker Shorting in Vacuum", LMAO Astronautics Mission Success, July 20, 2001
  28. T. Nagai, K. Natori and T. Furusawa, "Rate of Short Circuit Caused by Whisker Growth on Zn Electroplated Steels in Electronic Appliance", J. Japan Inst. Metals, vol. 53, no. 3, pp. 303 - 307, 1989
  29. T. Takemura, M. Kobayashi, M. Okutani, T. Kakeshita and K. Shimizu, "Relation Between the Direction of Whisker Growth and the Crystallographic Texture of Zinc Electroplate", Japanese Journal of Applied Physics Part 1 - Regular Papers Short Notes & Review Papers, vol. 25, no. 12, pp. 1948-1949, 1986
  30. U. Lindborg, "A Model for the Spontaneous Growth of Zinc, Cadmium, and Tin Whiskers," Acta Metallurgica, vol. 24, p. 181, 1976
  31. U. Lindborg, "Observations on the Growth of Whisker Crystals from Zinc Electroplate", Metallurgical Transactions A - Physical Metallurgy and Materials Science, vol. 6, no. 8, pp. 1581-1586, August 1975
  32. P.L. Key, "Surface Morphology of Whisker Crystals of Tin, Zinc and Cadmium," IEEE Electronic Components Conference, pp. 155-157, May, 1970 or 1977

Silver (Ag) Whiskers

  1. B. Chudnovsky, "Degradation of Power Contacts in Industrial Atmosphere: Silver Corrosion and Whiskers", 48th IEEE Holm Conference on Electrical Contacts 2002, pp 140 - 150.
  2. E. Walker, "Whisker Growth on Silver Tipped Contacts. Report on investigation of an electrical accident at Coking plant in 1979", UK Health and Safety Executive (HSE), UK British Standard Institute (BSI), 1999.
  3. J. Muniesa, “The growth of whiskers on Ag surfaces", Proc. International Conference on Electric Contact Phenomena, Pub. VDE-Verlag GmbH, Berlin, 1982, pp. 56-59, June 1982.
  4. Kenneth A. Riddle, "Tin plating versus silver plating and the use of silver alloys on electrical equipment for the paper industry", Conference record of 1990 Annual Pulp and Paper Industry Technical Conference, Seattle, WA, pp. 32-36, June 1990.

     

Gold (Au) Whiskers

  1. "Gold Whiskers:  Introducing a New Member to the Family", A. Teverovsky, Internal NASA Goddard Space Flight Center Memorandum, April 2003

Cadmium (Cd) Whiskers

  1. U. Lindborg, "A Model for the Spontaneous Growth of Zinc, Cadmium, and Tin Whiskers," Acta Metallurgica, vol. 24, p. 181, 1976
  2. P.L. Key, "Surface Morphology of Whisker Crystals of Tin, Zinc and Cadmium," IEEE Electronic Components Conference, pp. 155-157, May, 1970 or 1977
  3. M.O. Peach, "Mechanism of Growth of Whiskers on Cadmium", Unknown Publisher (only the Letters to the editor at the University of Notre Dame, Notre Dame, Indiana), September 11, 1952.

Aluminum (Al) Whiskers

  1. "A New Failure Mechanism:  Al-Si Bond Pad Whisker Growth During Life Test", T. Turner and R. Parsons, IEEE Trans. on Components, Hybrids, and Manufacturing Technology, Vol. CHMT-5 No. 4, Dec. 1982

Lead (Pb) Whiskers

  1. "Microstucture Evolution and Interfacial Properties in the Fe-Pb System", J.P. Monchoux, E. Rabkin, Acta Materialia 50 (2002), 3159–3174

  2. "Inverse AC Josephson Effect in Superconducting In and Pb Whiskers, B. Damaschke, R. Tidecks, Z. Physics B. Condensed Matter 77, 17-23, 1989

  3. "Whiskers from the In-Pb System:  Growth, Handling and Characteristic Properties", T. Werner, R. Tidecks, B. Johnston, Journal of Crystal Growth 73 (1985), 467-481

  4. "Pb Whisker Growth from Liquid Phase on Pb-Alloy Josephson Device Chips", Y. Takeuchi, K. Fujiwara, Journal of Applied Physics 54 (10), Oct. 1983, 6053-54

  5. "Combinations of Third Order Elastic Constants of Pb", B. Powell, M. Skove, Journal of Applied Physics 51 (6), June 1980, 3433-34

  6. "Thermal Strain in Pb Thin Films V: Strain Relaxation Above Room Temperature", M. Murakami, T. Kuan, Thin Solid Films 66 (1980), 381-394

  7. "Filamentary Crystals Grown from the Solid Metal", G. Sines, Journal of the Physical Society of Japan, Vol. 15 No. 7, July 1960, 1199-121

Indium (In) Whiskers

  1. "Inverse AC Josephson Effect in Superconducting In and Pb Whiskers, B. Damaschke, R. Tidecks, Z. Physics B. Condensed Matter 77, 17-23, 1989

  2. "Whiskers from the In-Pb System:  Growth, Handling and Characteristic Properties", T. Werner, R. Tidecks, B. Johnston, Journal of Crystal Growth 73 (1985), 467-481

  3. "Filamentary Crystals Grown from the Solid Metal", G. Sines, Journal of the Physical Society of Japan, Vol. 15 No. 7, July 1960, 1199-121

  4. "Some Aspects of Bonding Solder Deterioriation Observed in Long-Lived Semiconductor Lasers: Solder Migration and Whisker Growth", K. Mizuishi, Journal of Applied Physics 55 (2), 15 Jan 1984, 289-95

  5. "Reliability and Degradation of Semiconductor Lasers and LEDs", M. Fukuda, 1991 Artech House Inc., Chapters 4 and 9

 
Responsible NASA Officials:

   Michael Sampson/NASA GSFC Code 306
   Dr. Henning Leidecker/NASA GSFC Code 562
Additional Researchers: 

Jay Brusse/Dell Perot Systems
Lyudmyla Panashchenko/NASA GSFC Code 562

Jong Kim/Orbital Sciences Corp.

Last Updated:

January 24, 2011

DISCLAIMER:
This website provides information about tin whiskers and related research. The independent research performed during the past 50+ years is so vast that it is impractical to cover all aspects of tin whiskers in this one resource. Therefore, the absence of information in this website about a particular aspect of tin whiskers should NOT be construed as evidence of absence.

COPYRIGHT NOTICE:
This material is presented to ensure timely dissemination of scholarly and technical work. For technical references posted herein, copyright and all rights therein are retained by authors or by other copyright holders. All persons copying this information are expected to adhere to the terms and constraints invoked by each author's copyright. In most cases, these works may not be reposted without the explicit permission of the copyright holder.

SECURITY BANNER