NASA
Literature References

Home Basic Info/FAQ Other Metal Whiskers Literature References Whisker Failures Whisker Anecdotes Photo Gallery Video Gallery GSFC Experiments Related Links What's New Contact Us

 

 

Tin Whisker Literature References

NASA Goddard Publications Military Specification Reference Info Industry/Academia Publications Other Metal Whisker Info

NASA Goddard Publications

  1. J. Brusse, L. Panashchenko, "Zinc Whiskers Detected on Zinc-Coated Steel Cable Tray- 'Cable Tray #1' ", Nov. 1, 2012

  2. J. Brusse, L. Panashchenko, "Zinc Whiskers Detected on Zinc-Coated Steel Cable Tray- 'Cable Tray #2' ", Nov. 1, 2012

  3. L. Panashchenko, "The Art of Appreciating Metal Whiskers:  A Practical Guide for Electronics Professionals", IPC Tin Whisker Symposium, Dallas, TX, April 2012

  4. H. Leidecker, L. Panashchenko, J. Brusse, "Electrical Failure of an Accelerator Pedal Position Sensor Caused by a Tin Whisker and Investigative Techniques Used for Whisker Detection", 5th International Tin Whisker Symposium, Sept. 2011

  5. L. Panashchenko, J. Brusse, H. Leidecker, "Long Term Investigation of Urethane Conformal Coating Against Tin Whisker Growth", IPC Tin Whisker Conference, Dec. 2010

  6. J. Brusse, H. Leidecker, L. Panashchenko, "Metal Whiskers: A Discussion for CALCE Symposium", Symp. on Part Reprocessing, Tin Whisker Mitigation and Assembly Rework, Nov. 12, 2008
  7. J. Brusse, H. Leidecker, L. Panashchenko, "Metal Whiskers: A Discussion for NUPIC", Nuclear Procurement Issues Committee (NUPIC) Meeting, Cherry Hill, NJ, June 19, 2008
  8. J. Brusse, H. Leidecker, L. Panashchenko, "Metal Whiskers:  A Discussion for UNOVIS Consortium", UNOVIS Consortium Meeting, Owego, NY, June 18, 2008
  9. J. Brusse, H. Leidecker, L. Panashchenko, "Metal Whiskers: A Discussion for AAMI-CRMD", Association for Advancement of Medical Instrumentation (AAMI) Cardiac Rhythm Management Device (CRMD) Committee, San Francisco, CA, May 13, 2008
  10. J. Brusse, H. Leidecker, L. Panashchenko, "Metal Whiskers: Failure Modes and Mitigation Strategies", 2nd International Symposium on Tin Whiskers, Tokyo, Japan, April 24, 2008
  11. J. Brusse, H. Leidecker, L. Panashchenko, "Metal Whiskers: Failure Modes & Mitigation Strategies", Microelectronics Reliability & Qualification Workshop (MRQW), Dec. 5, 2007
  12. H. Leidecker, J. Brusse, "Metal Whiskering", CALCE Intl. Symposium on Tin Whiskers, Apr. 2007
  13. H. Leidecker, J. Brusse, "Tin Whiskers:  A History of Documented Electrical System Failures", Technical Presentation to Space Shuttle Program Office, April 2006
  14. J. Brusse, M. Sampson, "Zinc Whiskers:  Hidden Cause of Equipment Failure", IEEE IT Professional, 2004 Nov/Dec, Vol. 6 No. 6, pp 43-47
  15. M. Sampson, H. Leidecker, "NASA Goddard Space Flight Center Comments Regarding JEDEC Ballot JC-14-04-226:  Test Method for Evaluating Tin Whisker Growth on Plated Surfaces", Aug. 31, 2004
  16. H. Leidecker, "Whiskers of Sn-Pb on REFLOWED Die Attach Solder Used in the Manufacture of Laser Diode Arrays", December 2003
  17. J. Brusse, "A Discussion of the Significance of Metal Whisker Formation to the High Reliability Community", Nov. 2003
  18. J. Brusse, "Zinc Whisker Awareness:  Could Zinc Whiskers Be Impacting Your Electronics?", Technical Presentation, April 2003
  19. A. Teverovsky, "Gold Whiskers:  Introducing a New Member to the Family", Internal NASA Goddard Memo, April 2003
  20. J. Brusse, G. Ewell, and J. Siplon, "Tin Whiskers: Attributes and Mitigation", Capacitor and Resistor Technology Symposium (CARTS) Europe, October 15-17, 2002, pp.221-233
  21. J. Brusse, "Slide Presentation-Tin Whiskers:  Attributes and Mitigation", Capacitor and Resistor Technology Symposium (CARTS) Europe, October 17, 2002
  22. J. Brusse, "Tin Whisker Observations on Pure Tin-Plated Ceramic Chip Capacitors", Proceedings of the American Electroplaters and Surface Finishers (AESF) SUR/FIN Conference, June 24-28, 2002, pp. 45-61
  23. J. Brusse, Slide Presentation for "Tin Whisker Observations on Pure Tin-Plated Ceramic Chip Capacitors", Proceedings of the American Electroplaters and Surface Finishers (AESF) SUR/FIN Conference, June 24-28, 2002, pp. 45-61
  24. J. Brusse, G. Ewell, and J. Siplon, "Tin Whiskers: Attributes and Mitigation", Capacitor and Resistor Technology Symposium (CARTS), March 25-29, 2002, pp. 68-80.
  25. J. Brusse, "Slide Presentation: Tin Whiskers: Attributes and Mitigation", Capacitor and Resistor Technology Symposium (CARTS), March 25-29, 2002
  26. J.S. Kadesch, and J. Brusse, "The Continuing Dangers of Tin Whiskers and Attempts to Control them with Conformal Coat", NASA's EEE Links Newsletter, July 2001
  27. J. Brusse, "Survey of MIL Ceramic Chip Capacitor Manufacturers Regarding Termination Finishes", memo May 23, 2001
  28. M. Barthelmy, "TIP No. 125: Problems with Pure Tin Coatings (Revised TIP 021)", NASA GSFC Materials Engineering Branch, January 17, 2001
  29. J.S. Kadesch, "Slide Presentation: Effect of Uralane Conformal Coating on Tin Whisker Growth", October 24, 2000
  30. "Slide Presentation: Tin Whiskers: Re-emergence of an Old Problem with Potentially Catastrophic Consequences", October 6, 1998 
  31. H. Leidecker, and J.S. Kadesch, "Effects of Uralane Conformal Coating on Tin Whisker Growth", Proceedings of IMAPS Nordic, The 37th IMAPS Nordic Annual Conference, pp. 108-116, September, 10-13, 2000.
  32. J. Kadesch, "Effects of Conformal Coat on Tin Whisker Growth", NASA's EEE Links Newsletter, March 2000
  33. J. Brusse, "Tin Whiskers: Revisiting an Old Problem", NASA's EEE Links Newsletter, December 1998
  34. J. Kadesch and J. Brusse "Electromagnetic Relay Manufacturer Survey", December 1998
  35. M. Sampson, "Tin Whiskers: Amendment", NASA Parts Advisory NA-044A, December 17, 1998
  36. M. Sampson, "Tin Whiskers", NASA Parts Advisory NA-044, October 23, 1998

Military Specifications Review for EEE Parts

  1. Summary of the Current Pure Tin Prohibition for EEE Part Procurement Specifications (Military and NASA)
  2. Detailed Specification Language Regarding Current Pure Tin Prohibition Status of EEE Part Procurement Specifications (Military and NASA)
  3. "Survey of MIL Ceramic Chip Capacitor Manufacturers Regarding Termination Finishes", J. Brusse (QSS Group, Inc.), memo May 23, 2001

Industry/Academia Publications
The following listing provides a reference listing of articles covering the subject of Metal Whiskers and related topics.  References are listed in chronological order except for articles where the publication dates are unknown.  Articles with unknown date of publication are shown at the end of this listing:

  1. L. Panashchenko, M. Osterman,"Examination of Nickel Underlayer as a Tin Whisker Mitigator", Electronic Components and Technologies Conference (ECTC), May 2009, pages 1037-43

    Paper

    Presentation

  2. S. McCormack, S. Meschter, "Probabilistic Assessment of Component Lead-to-Lead Tin Whisker Bridging", Intl. Conf. on Soldering and Reliability, May 20-22, 2009

  3. Courey, K., .; Asfour, S. S.; Onar, A.; Bayliss, J. A.; Ludwig, L. L.; Wright, M. C.,"Tin Whisker Electrical Short Circuit Characteristics—Part II", Electronics Packaging Manufacturing, IEEE Transactions onVolume 32, Issue 1, Jan. 2009 Page(s):41 - 48

  4. H. Hao, Y. Shi, "Tin Whiskers with Special Morphology", Beijing University of Technology, July 2008 - Printed with permission of the authors

  5. K.S. Kumar, L. Reinbold, A.F. Bower, and E. Chason, "Plastic deformation processes in Cu/Sn bimetallic films",J. Mater. Res., Vol. 23, No. 11, Nov 2008

  6. P. Fontana, "SEM Images of a 27 Year Old Sample Containing Tin Whiskers in Comparison to Salt (NaCl) Whiskers", June 2008

  7. P. Snugovsky, et al, "Whisker Growth on SAC Solder Joints: Microstructural Analysis", SMTA Toronto, May 2008
    Technical Presentation
    Technical Paper
  8. E. Chason, N. Jadhav, W. L. Chan, L. Reinbold, and K. S. Kumar, "Whisker formation in Sn and Pb–Sn coatings: Role of intermetallic growth, stress evolution, and plastic deformation processes", APPLIED PHYSICS LETTERS 92, 171901, April 2008

  9. Courey, K.J.; Asfour, S.S.; Bayliss, J.A.; Ludwig, L.L.; Zapata, M.C., "Tin Whisker Electrical Short Circuit Characteristics—Part I", Electronics Packaging Manufacturing, IEEE Transactions on, Volume 31, Issue 1, Jan. 2008 Page(s):32 - 40

  10. J. Brusse, H. Leidecker, L. Panashchenko, "Metal Whiskers: Failure Modes & Mitigation Strategies", Microelectronics Reliability & Qualification Workshop (MRQW), Dec. 2007

  11. S. Barr, "Mitigating and Preventing the Growth of Tin and Other Metal Whiskers on Critical Hardware", 2007   Presentation

  12. H. Leidecker, "Metal Whiskering: Tin, Zinc and Cadmium", CALCE Intl. Symposium on Tin Whiskers, Apr. 2007

  13. H. Garich, "Evaluation of Faradayic Plating Method for Controlling Tin Whisker Growth", CALCE Intl. Symposium on Tin Whiskers, Apr. 2007

  14. J. Aragon, "Tin Whisker Mitigation Methods", CALCE Intl. Symposium on Tin Whiskers, Apr. 2007

  15. E. Chason, "Stress Generation, Relaxation and Whisker Formation in Tin Coatings on Copper", CALCE Intl. Symposium on Tin Whiskers, Apr. 2007

  16. J. Doornink, "Effectiveness of EPM Coatings as a Mitigation Against Tin Whiskers", CALCE Intl. Symposium on Tin Whiskers, Apr. 2007

  17. F. Dunlevey, "Evaluation of the Influence of Substrate Material on Tin Whisker Growth", CALCE Intl. Symposium on Tin Whiskers, Apr. 2007

  18. M. Mason, G. Eng, "Understanding Tin Plasmas: A New Approach to Tin Plasma Risk Assessment", CALCE Intl. Symposium on Tin Whiskers, Apr. 2007

  19. G. Galyon, "Tin Whisker: Stress Measurement and Analysis", CALCE Intl. Symposium on Tin Whiskers, Apr. 2007

  20. C. Handwerker, "Stress Relaxation in Sn, Sn-Cu, and Sn-Pb Films", CALCE Intl. Symposium on Tin Whiskers, Apr. 2007

  21. D. Hillman, "The Use of Sn-Bi Plating for Tin Whisker Mitigation on Fabricated Mechanical Parts", CALCE Intl. Symposium on Tin Whiskers, Apr. 2007

  22. S. Mathew, "Tin Whisker Risk and Growth Assessment", CALCE Intl. Symposium on Tin Whiskers, Apr. 2007

  23. J. Michelet, "Tin Whiskers: How to Mitigate their Growth by an Accurate Choice of the Finish, the Under-Layer and/or by Conformal Coating?", CALCE Intl. Symposium on Tin Whiskers, Apr. 2007

  24. K. Nishimi, "Space Shuttle Program-Tin Whisker Mitigation", CALCE Intl. Symposium on Tin Whiskers, Apr. 2007

  25. W. Boettinger, "NIST Tin Whisker Research", CALCE Intl. Symposium on Tin Whiskers, Apr. 2007

  26. K. Nocke, "Tin Whisker Growth Investigations Component and Module Level",  CALCE Intl. Symposium on Tin Whiskers, Apr. 2007

  27. P. Oberndorf, "Matte Tin Plating as an Alternative to Tin-Lead as Semiconductor Surface Finish",  CALCE Intl. Symposium on Tin Whiskers, Apr. 2007

  28. D. Pinsky, "The Effect of Grain Boundary Impurities on the Whiskering Propensity of Tin",  CALCE Intl. Symposium on Tin Whiskers, Apr. 2007

  29. L. Reinbold, "Intermetallic Growth Kinetics in Copper-Tin Bi-Layer Thin Films",  CALCE Intl. Symposium on Tin Whiskers, Apr. 2007

  30. T. Shibutani, "Evaluation of Resistance to Tin Whisker Formation Induced by Contact Force",  CALCE Intl. Symposium on Tin Whiskers, Apr. 2007

  31. K. Suganuma, "Tin Whisker Formation on Fine Pitch Connectors and Its Mitigation",  CALCE Intl. Symposium on Tin Whiskers, Apr. 2007

  32. R. Thompson, "POSS-thiol Based Mitigation of Tin Whiskers",  CALCE Intl. Symposium on Tin Whiskers, Apr. 2007

  33. A. Touw, "Tin Whisker Interactions:  A Monte Carlo Analysis",  CALCE Intl. Symposium on Tin Whiskers, Apr. 2007

  34. G. Wilcox, "Tin Whisker Growth from Electrodeposited Tin-Manganese Alloys",  CALCE Intl. Symposium on Tin Whiskers, Apr. 2007

  35. T. Woodrow, "Evaluation of Conformal Coatings as a Tin Whisker Mitigation Strategy: Part II",  CALCE Intl. Symposium on Tin Whiskers, Apr. 2007

  36. T. Woodrow, "Tracer Diffusion in Whisker-Prone Tin Platings",  CALCE Intl. Symposium on Tin Whiskers, Apr. 2007

  37. W. Zhang, "Effects of Lead (Pb) on Tin Whisker Elimination",  CALCE Intl. Symposium on Tin Whiskers, Apr. 2007 

  38. T. Woodrow, "Tracer Diffusion in Whisker-Prone Tin Platings", SMTAI, Sept. 2006

  39. T. Woodrow, "Evaluation of Conformal Coatings as a Tin Whisker Mitigation Strategy, Part 2", SMTAI, Sept. 2006

  40. H. Leidecker, J. Brusse, "Tin Whiskers:  A History of Documented Electrical System Failures", Technical Presentation to Space Shuttle Program Office, April 2006

  41.  W.J. Boettinger, "Whisker and Hillock formation on Sn, Sn–Cu and Sn–Pb electrodeposits", Acta Materialia 53, 2005, pp. 5033-5050.

  42. V. Schroeder, "HP Experience with Tin Whisker Inspection Training", V. Schroeder, circa August 2005

  43. Westinghouse Nuclear Tech Bulletin TB-05-4, "Potential Tin Whiskers on Printed Circuit Board Components", June 8, 2005

  44. T. Woodrow, "Evaluation of Conformal Coatings as a Tin Whisker Mitigation Strategy", IPC/JEDEC 8th International Conference on Pb-Free Electronic Components and Assemblies, San Jose, CA, April 18-20, 2005
       -  Technical Paper (~11 Mbytes)
       -  Presentation (~19 Mbytes)
  45. K. Chen, G. Wilcox, "Observations of the Spontaneous Growth of Tin Whiskers on Tin-Manganese Alloy Electrodeposits", Physical Review Letters, Feb. 17, 2005, pp. 066104-1 to 066104-4
  46. M. Barsoum, et al, "Driving Force and Mechanism for Spontaneous Metal Whisker Formation", Physical Review Letters 93, Nov. 10, 2004, pp.206104-1 to 206104-4
  47. J. Brusse, M. Sampson, "Zinc Whiskers:  Hidden Cause of Equipment Failure", IEEE IT Professional, 2004 Nov/Dec, Vol. 6 No. 6, pp 43-47
  48. I. Amato, "Tin Whiskers: The Next Y2K Problem?", Fortune Magazine, Dec. 29, 2004
  49. H. Reynolds, R. Hilty, "Investigations of Zinc (Zn) Whiskers using FIB Technology", IPC/JEDEC Boston, Dec. 2004
  50. "Zinc whiskers found in War Memorial", ComputerWorld-Australia, M. Crawford, Aug. 12, 2004
  51. "Zinc whiskers tangle data centre ops", ComputerWorld-Australia, J. Bajkowski, Feb. 12, 2004
  52. D. Pinsky, M. Osterman, S. Ganesan, "Tin Whiskering Risk Factors", IEEE Trans. on Components and Packaging Technologies, Vol. 27 No. 2, June 2004
  53. M. Barsoum, E. Hoffman, et al, "Driving Force and Mechanism for Spontaneous Metal Whisker Formation", Physical Review Letters- American Physical Society, June 25, 2004
  54. J. Osenbach, R. Shook, et al, "Lead-Free Packaging and Sn Whiskers", IEEE Electronic Components and Technology Conference, 2004, pp. 1314-1324.
  55. A. Gurav, B. Stacy, "Whiskering Evaluation of Capacitors Mounted with Lead-Free Solders", IPC/JEDEC 5th International Conference on Lead Free Electronic Components and Assemblies, March 2004
  56. W. Bjorndahl, L. Singleton, et al, "Detection of Tin Plating and Tin Whisker Mitigation", 42nd Annual Intl Reliability Physics Symposium, Phoenix, 2004, pp. 563-564.
  57. G. Galyon, "A History of Tin Whisker Theory: 1946 to 2004", SMTAI International conference, September 26-30, 2004 (Chicago, IL)
  58. G. Galyon, R. Gedney, "Avoiding Tin Whisker Reliability Problems", Circuits Assembly, Aug. 2004, pp. 26-31
  59. R. Gedney, J. Smetana, N. Vo, G. Galyon, "NEMI Tin Whisker Projects", Second International Conference on Lead Free Electronics, June 21-23, 2004 (Amsterdam)
  60. M. Dittes, P. Oberndorf, P. Crema, V. Schroeder, "Tin Whisker Formation in Thermal Cycling Conditions", IEEE Electronics Packaging and Technology Conference, 2003, pp. 183-188.
  61. H. Leidecker, "Whiskers of Sn-Pb on REFLOWED Die Attach Solder Used in the Manufacture of Laser Diode Arrays", December 2003
  62. GEIA G-12 Committee, "GEB-0002: Reducing the Risk of Tin Whisker-Induced Failures in Electronic Systems", December 2003
  63. N. Vo, et al, "NEMI Recommends Standard Test Methods to Assess Propensity for Tin Whisker Growth", SMT Magazine, November 2003
  64. J. Brusse, "A Discussion of the Significance of Metal Whisker Formation to the High Reliability Community", Nov. 2003
  65. G. Galyon, "Annotated Tin Whisker Bibliography", NEMI Publication, pp. 1-22, Updated July 2003 (orig. Feb. 2003)
  66. S. Lal, "Tin Whiskers and Minimization in Electrical Connectors", AESF-SUR/FIN Conference, Milwaukee, WI:  June 2003
  67. S. Okada, et al, "Field Reliability Estimation of Tin Whiskers Generated by Thermal Cycling Stress", Capacitor and Resistor Technology Symposium (CARTS) Europe, October 2003
  68. G. Eng., et al, "Review of Aerospace Corp. Pre- and Post-Project 1998 Tin Whisker Work", The Aerospace Corp. Internal Presentation, et al, Apr. 2003

  69. J. Brusse, "Zinc Whisker Awareness:  Could Zinc Whiskers Be Impacting Your Electronics?", Technical Presentation, April 2003
  70. B. Jeffers, "Capacitor Tin Whisker White Paper:  Is it Tinned Yet?", IPC/JEDEC International Pb-Free Conference, San Jose, CA, April 2003
  71. P. Bush, G. Jones, I. Boguslavsky, "Relationships of Copper Diffusion and Surface Oxide Formation to Tin Whisker Growth", NEMI Workshop on Tin Whiskers, APEX 2003, Anaheim, CA, April 1, 2003
  72. C. Xu, C. Fan, Y. Zhang, J. Abys, "Whisker Prevention", Proceedings of the Technical Conference, APEX 2003, Anaheim, CA, April 2003
  73. A. Teverovsky, "Gold Whiskers:  Introducing a New Member to the Family", Internal NASA Goddard Memo, April 2003
  74. I. Boguslavsky, P. Bush, "Recrystallization Principles Applied to Whisker Growth in Tin", APEX 2003, Anaheim, CA, March 31, 2003, pp. S12-4-1 to S12-4-10.
  75. J. LeBret, M. Norton, "Electron Microscopy Study of Tin Whisker Growth", Journal of Materials Research, Vol. 18, No. 3, pp. 585-593 March, 2003
  76. G. Galyon, "Annotated Tin Whisker Bibliography", NEMI Publication, pp. 1-21, February 2003
  77. D. Romm, D. Abbott, S. Grenney, M. Khan, "Whisker Evaluation of Tin-Plated Logic Component Leads", Texas Instruments Application Report SZZA037A, February 2003
  78. B. Chudnovsky, "Degradation of Power Contacts in Industrial Atmosphere: Silver Corrosion and Whiskers", 48th IEEE Holm Conference on Electrical Contacts 2002, pp 140 - 150.
  79. S. Lal, "Tin Whiskers: Their Appearance and Reduction in Electronic Connectors", 2nd IPC-JEDEC International Conference on Pb-Free Electronic Components and Assemblies, Taipei, Taiwan, Dec. 10, 2002, pp. 107-126
  80. N. Vo, M. Tsuriya, "Whisker Assessment of Tin-based Finishes for Leadframe Packages", Proceedings of EcoDesign 2003 Japan Symposium, Tokyo, Japan:  Dec. 5, 2002, pp. B-5-1, 120-123
  81. A. Egli, W Zhang, J Heber, F. Schwager, M. Toben, "Where Crystal Planes Meet:  Contribution to the Understanding of the Tin Whisker Growth Process", IPC Conference (New Orleans), November 2002
  82. S. Tucker, "What Nasty Little Things are Lurking Inside Your Data Center?", Unisys World Monthly, November 2002
  83. J. Brusse, G. Ewell, and J. Siplon, "Tin Whiskers: Attributes and Mitigation", Capacitor and Resistor Technology Symposium (CARTS) Europe, October 15-17, 2002, pp.221-233
  84. W. Blum, R. Kullman, et al "On the Scope of Whisker Risk of Pure Tin Terminated SMD-Resistors", Capacitor and Resistor Technology Symposium (CARTS) Europe, October 15-17, 2002, pp.234-238
  85. G. Davy, "Relay Failure Caused by Tin Whiskers", Northrop Grumman Electronic Systems Technical Article, October 2002
  86. Univ. of Maryland CALCE, "POSITION PAPER ON RISKS TO HIGH-RELIABILITY ELECTRONICS AND ASSOCIATED HARDWARE FROM PURE TIN COATINGS", July 25, 2002
  87. Westinghouse Nuclear Tech Bulletin TB-02-5, "(Tin Whiskers on Potentiometers used in) Basler Power Supplies", July 12, 2002

  88. M. Osterman (Univ. of Maryland CALCE), "Mitigation Strategies for Tin Whiskers", July 3, 2002
  89. G. Sheng, C. Hu, et al, "Tin Whiskers Studied by Focused Ion Beam Imaging and Transmission Electron Microscopy", Journal of Applied Physics Volume 92: No. 1, 1 July 2002, pp. 64-69
  90. J. Brusse, "Tin Whisker Observations on Pure Tin-Plated Ceramic Chip Capacitors", Proceedings of the American Electroplaters and Surface Finishers (AESF) SUR/FIN Conference, June 24-28, 2002, pp. 45-61
  91. R. Schetty, "Tin Whisker Studies--Experimentation and Mechanistic Understanding", Proceedings of the American Electroplaters and Surface Finishers (AESF) SUR/FIN Conference, June 24-28, 2002, 7-17
  92. R. Oberle, "Metallurgical Aspects of Tin Whisker Growth", Proceedings of the American Electroplaters and Surface Finishers (AESF) SUR/FIN Conference, June 24-28, 2002, pp. N/A
  93. K. Whitlaw and J. Crosby, "An Empirical Study into Tin Whisker Growth of Tin and Tin Alloy Electrodeposits", Proceedings of the American Electroplaters and Surface Finishers (AESF) SUR/FIN Conference, June 24-28, 2002, pp.19-30, 40-42.
  94. M. Williams, C. Johnson, K. Moon, G. Stafford, C. Handwerker and W. Boettinger, "Whisker Formation on Electroplated Sn-Cu", Proceedings of the American Electroplaters and Surface Finishers (AESF) SUR/FIN Conference, June 24-28, 2002, pp. 31-39
  95. I. Boguslavsky, N. Brown and H. Gray, "The Effect of Operating Parameters and Test Conditions On the Whisker Performance of Pure Tin as a Lead-Free Solderable Finish", Proceedings of the American Electroplaters and Surface Finishers (AESF) SUR/FIN Conference, June 24-28, 2002, pp. N/A
  96. S. Lal, "Lead-Free Coatings in High Speed Electronic Connectors", Proceedings of the American Electroplaters and Surface Finishers (AESF) SUR/FIN Conference, June 24-28, 2002, pp. 75-90
  97. Univ. of Maryland CALCE, "RISKS OF CONDUCTIVE WHISKERS IN HIGH-RELIABILITY ELECTRONICS AND ASSOCIATED HARDWARE FROM PURE TIN COATINGS", June 19, 2002
  98. Univ. of Maryland CALCE, "Tin Whisker Experiences", June 19, 2002
  99. C. Xu, Y. Zhang, C. Fan, J. Abys, "Understanding Whisker Phenomenon:  The Driving Force for Whisker Formation", Circuit Tree Magazine, April 2002, pp. 94-105
  100. J. Brusse, G. Ewell, and J. Siplon, "Tin Whiskers: Attributes and Mitigation", Capacitor and Resistor Technology Symposium (CARTS), pp. 67-80 March 25-29, 2002.
  101. B. Levine, "Will 'Tin Whiskers' Grow When You Get the Lead Out?", Electronic News, March 25, 2002, pp 2.
  102. R. Schetty, "Tin Whisker Growth & The Metallurgical Properties of Electrodeposited Tin", IPC/JEDEC International Conference on Lead-Free Electronic Assemblies, March 2002, pp. 137-145
  103. N. Vo, "Whisker Growth Evaluations of Tin-Based Plating Finishes", JEDEX 2002 Conference, Santa Clara, CA, March 25, 2002
  104. S. Lal, "Lead-Free Development of Electronic Connectors", Proceedings of the IPC SMEMA Council APEX, pp. S01-1-1 thru S01-1-14, January 2002
  105. Y. Zhang, C. Xu, C. Fan, J. Abys andA. Vysotskaya, "Understanding Whisker Phenomenon: Whisker Index and Tin/Copper, Tin/Nickel Interface", Proceedings of the IPC SMEMA Council APEX, pp. S06-1-1 thru S06-1-11, January 2002
  106. C. Xu, Y.Zhang, C. Fan, J. Abys, L. Hopkins, F. Stevie, "Understanding Whisker Phenomenon- Driving Force for the Whisker Formation", Proceedings of the IPC SMEMA Council APEX, pp. S06-2-1 thru S06-1-6, January 2002
  107. I. Baudry, and G. Kerros, "Focused Ion Beam in Microelectronics Packaging Applications - Leadfree Plating Analysis-", Soldering & Assembly Technology, www.lead-free.org, November, 3, 2001.
  108. J. S. Kadesch, and J. Brusse, "The Continuing Dangers of Tin Whiskers and Attempts to Control them with Conformal Coat", NASA's EEE Links Newsletter, July 2001
  109. D. Conwell, "Zinc Whisker Shorting in Vacuum", LMAO Astronautics Mission Success, July 20, 2001. 
  110. C. Stevens, "Relay Failures Induced by the Growth of Tin Whiskers:  A Case Study", IEEE Boston Reliability Chapter 38th Annual Spring Reliability Symposium, May 16, 2001
  111. R. Bidin, R. Tagapulot, C. Nichelle, D. Lao and R. Manalac, "Lead-Free Packaging", Advanced Packaging on-line, May 2001.
  112. S. Winkler and B. Hom, "A Look at the Past Reveals a Leadfree Drop-In Replacement", High Density Interconnect (HDI) on-line (http://www.hdi-online.com), March 2001.
  113. M. Barthelmy, "TIP No. 125: Problems with Pure Tin Coatings (Revised TIP 021)", NASA GSFC Materials Engineering Branch, January 17, 2001
  114. P.J. Brooks, "JC-13.2 New Business item: Addition of Matte Tin Final Lead or Terminal Finish to MIL-PRF-38535", Addendum to JC-13.2 Agenda at January 2001 Meeting, San Antonio, Texas, January 11, 2001.
  115. S. Lal, "An Evaluative Study of Lead-Free Deposits in High Speed Applications, AESF SUR/FIN Conference 2001
  116. Y. Zhang, C. Su, C. Fan, and J.A. Abys, "Tin Whisker Growth and Prevention", Journal of Surface Mount Technology, October, 2000.
  117. H. Leidecker, and J.S. Kadesch, "Effects of Uralane Conformal Coating on Tin Whisker Growth", Proceedings of IMAPS Nordic, The 37th IMAPS Nordic Annual Conference, pp. 108-116, September, 10-13, 2000.
  118. J. Kadesch, "Effects of Conformal Coat on Tin Whisker Growth", NASA's EEE Links Newsletter, March 2000
  119. GE Power Management, "Technical Service Bulletin:  Tin Whiskers in MOD10 Relays", March 27, 2000
  120. Space Views Article, "Mexican Satellite Failure May Be Linked to Past Problem", http://www.spaceviews.com/, August 30, 2000.
  121. R. Schetty, "Minimization of Tin Whisker Formation for Lead-Free Electronics Finishing", IPC Works Conference, Miami USA, pp. s-02-3-1 - s-02-3-6, 2000.
  122. Y. Zhang, "Can Electroplated Pure Tin Be Utilized as a Final Surface Finish for PWBs?", Circuitree, vol. 12, no. 11, pp. 10 - 22, November 1999.
  123. M. Ishii, T. Kataoka, H. Kurihara, "Whisker Problem in the Ultra-fine Pitch Circuits," 12th European Microelectronics & Packaging Conference, June 7 - 9, 1999.
  124. Lucent Technologies Press Release, "Lucent Technologies Venture Announces Electroplating Process that Gets the Lead out of Solder Materials", http://www.lucent.com/, April 1999.
  125. J. Brusse, "Tin Whiskers: Revisiting an Old Problem", NASA's EEE Links Newsletter, December 1998
  126. SAE International, "Investigation of Whisker Formation on Tin Plated Conductors", SAE, AIR5444, December 1998. 
  127. M. Sampson, "Tin Whiskers: Amendment", NASA Parts Advisory NA-044A, December 17, 1998
  128. M. Sampson, "Tin Whiskers", NASA Parts Advisory NA-044, October 23, 1998
  129. B. Nordwall, "Filter Center", Aviation Week & Space Technology, pp. 47, August 17, 1998
  130. G. J. Ewell and F. Moore, "Tin Whiskers and Passive Components: A Review of the Concerns"", 18th Capacitor and Resistor Technology Symposium, March 1998.
  131. B.Z. Lee and D.N. Lee, "Spontaneous Growth Mechanism of Tin Whiskers", Acta Materialogica, vol. 46, no. 10, pp. 3701-3714, 1998.
  132. S. Silverstein, "Reasons for Failure Lost With Galaxy 4," Space News, pp.3 and pp.20, August 17 - 23, 1998.
  133. C. Covault, "Lightning, Workmanship Eyed In New Hughes 601 Problems," Aviation Week & Space Technology, pp.31 & 47, August 17, 1998.
  134. R. Gauldin, "Tin whiskers on Hybrid Power Converter Lids," JPL Failure Analysis Laboratory (SEM log 7370), July 22, 1998.
  135. "Tin Whiskers Formation in Electronic Components," Lessons Learned Notice by Lockheed Martin Astronautics (internal report), Notice # LLN-98-06, pp. 1 - 4, July 1998.
  136. S.I. Castaneda, F. Rueda, R. Diaz, J.M. Ripalda, and I. Montero, "Whiskers in Indium Tin Oxide Films Obtained by Electron Beam Evaporation", Journal of Applied PHysics, vol. 83, no. 4, pp. 1995 - 2002, February 1998. 
  137. J. Licari, L. Enlow, "Hybrid Microcircuit Technology Handbook", Westwood, N.J. : Noyes Publications, c1998, pp. 402 - 403.
  138. M. Endo, S. Higuchi, Y. Tokuda, and Y. Sakabe, "Elimination of Whisker Growth on Tin Plated Electrodes", Proceedings of the 23rd International symposium for Testing and Failure Analysis, pp. 305 - 311, October 27-31, 1997.
  139. Dunn, B. D., "Metallurgical assessment of spacecraft parts, materials and processes" published by Praxis Publishing, Chichester, UK  1997, - see Chapter 7 "Whisker Growths" pp 515 - 548
  140. Y. Zhang and J. A. Abys, "A Unique Electrodeposition Process of a Lead-Free Solder - Pure Tin", Electrochemical Society Proceedings 96-21, pp. 159 - 176, 1997.
  141. G. Burstner, and E. Frohlich, "Electroplating Versus Hot - Dipped Tinning a Comparison of Application - Experiences," Symposium presented by Geindrahtwerk Adolf Edelhoff GmbH & Co., 1997.
  142. M. Jordan, "Lead-free Tin Alloys as Substitutes for Tin-Lead Alloy Plating", Trans IMF, vol. 75, no. 4, pp. 149 - 153, 1997.
  143. Y. Zhang, G. Breck, F. Humiec, K. Murski and J.A. Abys, "An Alternative Surface Finish for Tin/Lead Solders: Pure Tin" SMI'96 Proceedings, San Jose, CA, Sept., 1996
  144. Bosch Telecom, "CECC-parts with Pure Sn for Pretinning for VJ-capacitors," September 1996.
  145. "Relay, Electromagnetic," GIDEP Alert Number F3-P-97-01-V, December 2, 1996.
  146. P.E. Hinton, "Tin-Plating, Tin-Nickel Electroplate and Tin-plating over Nickel as Final Finishes on Copper," Proceedings of the Technical Program, Surface Mount International , San Jose, CA September 10-12, 1996, pp 806-810
  147. E. Budman, and M. McCoy, "Tin-Zinc Plating", Metal Finish, September 1995. 
  148. R. Kuhl and S. Mills, "Assuring Whisker-free Components," Surface Mount Technology, vol.9, p. 48, 1995.
  149. J. Downs, "The Phenomenon of Zinc Whisker Growth and the Rotary Switch (or, How the Switch Industry Captured the Abominable Snowman)", Metal Finishing, August 1994, pp. 23-25
  150. K.N., Tu, "Irreversible-Processes of Spontaneous Whisker Growth in Bimetallic Cu-Sn Thin-Film Reactions", The American Physical Society, Physical Review B - Condensed Matter, vol. 49, no. 3, pp. 2030-2034, January 15, 1994.
  151. P. Harris, "The Growth of Tin Whiskers", International Tin Research Institute, pp. 1 - 19, 1994.
  152. M.E. McDowell, "Tin Whiskers: A Case Study, (USAF)", Aerospace Applications Conference, pp. 207 -215, 1993.
  153. G.W. Stupian, "Tin Whiskers in Electronic Circuits," Aerospace Report No. TR-92(2925)-7, pp. 1 - 21, December 20, 1992. (Used with permission of The Aerospace Corporation)
  154. D. Helber, "Tin Whisker Formation ", A Presentation at Aerospace Corporation, November 19, 1992. 
  155. J.H. Richardson, and B.R. Lasley, "Tin Whisker Initiated Vacuum Metal Arcing in Spacecraft Electronics," 1992 Government Microcircuit Applications Conference, Vol. XVIII, pp. 119 - 122, November 10 - 12, 1992.
  156. D.H. Van Westerhuyzen, P.G. Backes, J.F. Linder, S.C. Merrell and R.L. Poeschel, "Tin Whisker Induced Failure in Vacuum," 18th International Symposium for Testing & Failure Analysis, pp. 407 - 412, October 17, 1992.
  157. D.E. Moore, "Tin Whisker Problem on Military Specifications Items," October 1, 1992.
  158. Product/Process Problem Alert Bulletin 9202, The Aerospace Corporation, May 14, 1992.
  159. H.S. Park, "Requirements to Preclude the Growth of Tin Whiskers," NASA Memo, NASA Parts Project Office-Code 310, Goddard space Flight Center to QR/Director, Reliability, Maintainability, and Quality Assurance Division, February 14, 1992.
  160. Mitsuo Fukuda, "Reliability and Degradation of Semiconductor Lasers and LEDs", ISBN 0-89006-465-2, 1Artech House, Inc., 1991
  161. P.G. Backes, "Selected Programs Shorting Failure Investigation Final Report (FASS 1298)," Hughes Technical Internal Correspondence, October 16, 1991.
  162. "Relay, Electromagnetic," Alert Number C6-A-91-03-V, April 1, 1991.
  163. A. Selcuker, and M. Johnson, "Microstructural Characterization of Electrodeposited Tin Layer in Relation to Whisker Growth", Capacitor and Resistor Technology Symposium : CARTS, pp. 19 - 22, October, 1990.
  164. K.M. Cunningham and M.P. Donahue, "Tin Whiskers: Mechanism of Growth and Prevention," 4th International SAMPE Electronics Conference, p. 569, June 1990.
  165. L. Corbid, "Constraints on the Use of Tin Plate in Miniature Electronic Packages", 3rd International SAMPE Electronics Conference, June 20-22, 1989. 
  166. L. Succo, J. Esposito, M. Cleeves, S. Whitney, R.E. Lionetti, and C.E. Wickersham, Jr., "Influence of Target Microstructure on the Propensity for Whisker Growth in Sputter-Deposited Aluminum Alloy Films", American Vacuum Society - J.Vac.Sci.Technolo.A, vol. 7, no. 3, pp. 814 - 816, May/June 1989.
  167. T. Nagai, K. Natori and T. Furusawa, "Rate of Short Circuit Caused by Whisker Growth on Zn Electroplated Steels in Electronic Appliance", J. Japan Inst. Metals, vol. 53, no. 3, pp. 303 - 307, 1989.
  168. J. Haimovich, "Hot Air Leveled Tin: Solderability and Some Related Properties," IEEE Proceeding, pp. 107 - 112, January 7, 1989.
  169. K.J. Heutel, "Problem Notification - Tin Whisker Growth in Electronic Assemblies," GIDEP Alert F3-A-87-04A, February 19, 1988.
  170. B.D. Dunn, "Mechanical and Electrical Characteristics of Tin Whiskers with Special Reference to Spacecraft Systems," European Space Agency (ESA) Journal, 12, pp. 1-17, January 14, 1988.
  171. B.D. Dunn, "A Laboratory Study of Tin Whisker Growth", European Space Agency (ESA) STR-223, pp. 1 - 50, September 1987.
  172. R. Halimi, E.M. Chpilevski, D.A. Gorbatchevski, and C.A. Yazitchenko, "Formation of Whiskers and Hillocks on the Surface of Cu-Sn Thin-Films", Thin Solid Films, vol. 150, no. 2-3, pp. 357-368, July 6, 1987. (Language in French)
  173. Inter-Office Memo, "Elimination of Tin Whisker Growth of Tin Plated Chip Capacitors", Murata Erie North America Inc. (internal report), April 1987.
  174. R.G. Baker, "Spontaneous Metallic Whisker Growth," Plating and Surface Finishing, vol. 74, no. 10, pp. 10, and vol. 74, no. 11, pp. 12 and 66, 1987.
  175. K.G. Balmain, "Arc Propagation, Emission and Damage on Spacecraft Dielectrics," AGARD CP-406, vol. 16, 1987.
  176. D.R. Gabe, " Whisker Growth on Tin Electrodeposits," Trans. IMF., Vol. 65, p. 115, 1987.
  177. B. Nordwall, "Air Force Links Radar Problems to Growth of Tin Whiskers", Aviation Week and Space Technology,  pp. 65-70, June, 20, 1986
  178. M. Egashira, Y.Yoshida and S. Kawasumi, "Gas Sensing Characteristics of Tin Oxide Whiskers", Sensors and Actuators, vol. 9, pp. 147 - 155, April 1986.
  179. FDA ITG Page, "Tin Whiskers - Problems, Causes, and Solutions", http://www.fda.gov/, no. 42, March, 14, 1986.
  180. T. Takemura, M. Kobayashi, M. Okutani, T. Kakeshita and K. Shimizu, "Relation Between the Direction of Whisker Growth and the Crystallographic Texture of Zinc Electroplate", Japanese Journal of Applied Physics Part 1 - Regular Papers Short Notes & Review Papers, vol. 25, no. 12, pp. 1948-1949, 1986. 
  181. E.H. Williams, "Tin Whiskers on Flat Pack Lead Plating Between Solder Dip and Sealing Glass," ISTFA Proceedings, pp. 16-21, 1985.
  182. D. Endicott, K. Kisner, "A Proposed Mechanism for Metallic Whisker Growth", publisher unknown, pp. 1-20, circa 1984.
  183. K.M. Gerbunova, and V.K. Glazaunova, "Present State of the Problem of Spontaneous Growth of Whisker Crystals on Electrolytic Coatings," Institute of Physical Chemistry, Academy of Sciences of the USSR, vol. 20, no. 3, pp. 342-358, 1984. 
  184. K. Mizuishi, "Some aspects of bonding-solder deterioration observed in long-lived semiconductor lasers: Solder migration and whisker growth", Source: Journal of Applied Physics vol.55, no.2 : 389-95, 15 Jan. 1984
  185. M. C. Lin, "Tin Whisker Growth on IC Lead Finish-A Review," AT&T Bell Laboratories Technical Memorandum: TM52221-840709-01, July 9, 1984.
  186. R. Kawanaka, K. Fujiwara, S. Nango and T. Hasegawa, "Influence of Impurities on the Growth of Tin Whiskers," Japanese Journal of Applied Physics, vol. 22, pp. 917 - 921, March 19, 1983.
  187. "Vapor Phase Fusion of Pure Tin Electroplate", Solid State Technology, March 1983. 
  188. A.R. Frederickson, "Electric Discharge Pulses in Irradiated Solid Dielectrics in Space," IEEE Transaction, EI-18, pp. 337-349, 1983.
  189. R. Kawanara, S. Nango, T. Hascgawa, and M. Ohtani, "Role of Lead in Growth Suppression and Growth Mechanism of Tin Proper Whisker", International Conference on Crystal Growth and Characterization of Polytype Structures (ICCGCPS), vol. 10, no. 2, pp. 148 - 156, 1983.
  190. T.Kakeshita, R. Kawanaka, and T. Hasegawa, "Grain Size Effect of Electro-Plated Tin Coatings on Whisker Growth," Journal of Materials Science, vol.17, pp. 2560-2566, 1982.
  191. K.N. Tu, and R.D. Thompson, "Kinetics of Interfacial Reaction in Bimetallic Cu-Sn Thin Films", ACTA Metall., vol. 30, pp. 947 - 952, 1982.
  192. K. Fujiwara, and R. Kawananka, "Observation of the Tin Whisker by Micro-Auger Electron Spectroscopy", Journal of Applied Physics, vol. 51, no. 12, pp. 6231 - 6232, December 1980.
  193. J. L. Jostan, "Whisker Formation in Tin, Tin-Lead Alloys, Silver, and Gold" , Galvanotechnik, vol. 71, no. 9, pp. 946 - 955, September, 1980 (Language in German).
  194. B.D. Dunn, "The Fusing of Tin-lead Plating on High Quality Printed-Circuit Boards," Transaction of the Institute of Metal Finishing, vol. 58, pg. 26, 1980.
  195. K. Fujiwara, M. Ohtani and T. Isu, "Interfacial Reaction in Bimetallic Sn/Cu Thin Films", Thin Solid Films, vol. 70, pp. 153 - 161, 1980.
  196. Y. Hada, O. Morikawa, H. Togami, "Study of Tin Whiskers on Electromagnetic Relay Parts," 26th Annual National Relay Conference, pp. 9.1 - 9.15, April 25-26, 1978.
  197. G.A. Smith, "How to Avoid Metallic Growth on Electronic Hardware," Circuits Manufacturing, pp. 66 - 72, July 1977.
  198. L. Zakraysek, D.B. Blackwood, W. Brouillette, W. Leyshon, A. Tardone, C. Byrns, and F. Poe, "Whisker Growth from a Bright Acid Tin Electrodeposit," Plating and Surface Finishing, vol. 64, pp. 38-43, March 1977.
  199. R.P. Diehl, "Eliminate Whisker Growth on Contacts By Using a Tin Alloy Plate", Insulation/Circuits, pp. 37 - 39, April 1976.
  200. B.D. Dunn , "Whisker Formation on Electronic Materials", ESA Scientific and Technical Review, vol. 2, no. 1, pp. 1-22, 1976.
  201. U. Lindborg, "A Model for the Spontaneous Growth of Zinc, Cadmium, and Tin Whiskers," Acta Metallurgica, vol. 24, p. 181, 1976.
  202. U. Lindborg, "Observations on the Growth of Whisker Crystals from Zinc Electroplate", Metallurgical Transactions A - Physical Metallurgy and Materials Science, vol. 6, no. 8, pp. 1581-1586, August 1975.
  203. N.A.J.Sabbagh and H.J.McQueen, "Tin Whiskers: Causes and Remedies," Metal Finishing, March 1975.
  204. I.A. Blech, P.M. Petroff, K.L. Tai and V. Kumar, "Whisker Growth in AL Thin Films", Journal of Crystal Growth, vol. 32, pp. 161-169, 1975.
  205. S. C. Britton, "Spontaneous Growth of Whiskers on Tin Coatings: 20 Years of Observation," Transactions of the Institute of Metal Finishing, vol. 52, pp. 95 - 102, April 3, 1974.
  206. R.B. Morris and W. Bonfield, "The Crystallography of Alpha - Tin Whiskers", Scripta Metallurgica, vol. 8, pp. 231-236, 1974.
  207. K.N. Tu, "Interdiffusion and Reaction in Bimetallic Cu-Sn Thin Films", Acta Metallurgica, vol. 12, pp. 347 - 354, April 1973.
  208. H.P. Kehrer and H.G. Kadereit, "Tracer Experiments on the Growth of Tin Whiskers," Applied Physics Letters, vol. 16, no. 11, pp. 411-412, June 1, 1970.
  209. P.L. Key, "Surface Morphology of Whisker Crystals of Tin, Zinc and Cadmium," IEEE Electronic Components Conference, pp. 155-157, May, 1970 or 1977.
  210. N. Furuta and K. Hamamura, "Growth Mechanism of Proper Tin-Whisker," Journal of Applied Physics, vol. 8, no. 12, pp. 1404 - 1410, December 1, 1969.
  211. R. Walker, "Internal Stress in Electrodeposited Metallic Coatings," Metal Finishing Monograph, p. 32, 1968.
  212. S.M. Arnold, "Repressing the Growth of Tin Whiskers," Plating, vol. 53, pp. 96-99, 1966.
  213. R.M. Besancon, "The Encyclopedia of Physics," subtitle "Electrical Discharges in Gases", Reinhold Publishing Corporation Book, pp. 189 - 193, 1966.
  214. V.K. Glazunova, and N.T. Kudryavtsev, "An Investigation of the Conditions of Spontaneous Growth of Filiform Crystals on Electrolytic Coatings," Translated form Zhurnal Prikladnoi Khimii, vol. 36, no. 3, pp. 543 - 550, March 1963.
  215. C. Kittel, "Introduction to Solid State Physics-Dislocations and Crystal Growth," Third Edition, 1960s, pp. 609 - 613.
  216. S.M. Arnold, "Growth of Metal Whiskers on Electrical Components," Proceedings of Electrical Components Conference, pp. 75-82, 1959.
  217. R.H. Doremus, B.W. Roberts, and D. Turnbull, "Growth and Perfection of Crystals", Proceedings of an International Conference on Crystal Growth held at Cooperstown, NY, August 27-29, 1958.
  218. G.S. Baker "Angular Bends in Whiskers", Acta Metallurgica, vol. 5, pp. 353 - 357, July 1957.
  219. R.M. Fisher, L.S. Darken and K.G. Carroll, "Accelerated Growth of Tin Whiskers", Acta Metallurgica, vol. 2, pp. 369 - 373, May 1954.
  220. F.C. Frank, "On Tin Whiskers," Philosophical Magazine, vol. 44, p.854, 1953.
  221. J.D. Eshelby, "A Tentative Theory of Metallic Whisker Growth", Unknown Publisher (only the Letters to the editor at the University of Illinois, Urbana, Illinois), June 4, 1953.
  222. M.O. Peach, "Mechanism of Growth of Whiskers on Cadmium", Unknown Publisher (only the Letters to the editor at the University of Notre Dame, Notre Dame, Indiana), September 11, 1952.
  223. S.E. Koonce and S.M. Arnold, "Growth of Metal Whiskers", Unknown Publisher (only the Letters to the editor at the Bell Telephone Laboratories, Murray Hill, NJ), December 8, 1952.
  224. J.B. Hudson, "Surface Science: An Introduction-Crystal Growth," Butterworth-Heinemann Book, pp. 304 - 310.
  225. R.V. Coleman, "Whiskers," Work Function, pp. 1112.
  226. "Tin Whisker Technical Assessment," Aerospace/AF SSD.
 
Responsible NASA Officials:

   Michael Sampson/NASA GSFC Code 306
   Dr. Henning Leidecker/NASA GSFC Code 562
Additional Researchers: 

Jay Brusse/Dell Perot Systems
Lyudmyla Panashchenko/NASA GSFC Code 562

Jong Kim/Orbital Sciences Corp.

Last Updated:

May 8, 2012

DISCLAIMER:
This website provides information about tin whiskers and related research. The independent research performed during the past 50+ years is so vast that it is impractical to cover all aspects of tin whiskers in this one resource. Therefore, the absence of information in this website about a particular aspect of tin whiskers should NOT be construed as evidence of absence.

COPYRIGHT NOTICE:
This material is presented to ensure timely dissemination of scholarly and technical work. For technical references posted herein, copyright and all rights therein are retained by authors or by other copyright holders. All persons copying this information are expected to adhere to the terms and constraints invoked by each author's copyright. In most cases, these works may not be reposted without the explicit permission of the copyright holder.

SECURITY BANNER